It has long been recognized that there are four "fundamental forces" that govern nature.
The substances of our universe are united, or pushed apart by these forces which are determined by the fact that they cannot seem to be reduced to more basic interactions between particles.
They include the gravitational and electromagnetic forces, which produce significant long-range interactions whose effects can be seen directly in everyday life.
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And they also include forces known as strong interactions and weak interactions, which produce power at small subatomic distances and regulate nuclear physics.
Over the years, there have been many unfounded claims about the existence of a fifth fundamental force, and as the long hunt for dark matter continues to prove fruitless, efforts to find new forces that have a role to help fill in the gaps of the standard model of particle physics cannot explain have increased .
Dark matter is a theoretical substance that is hypothesized to cover about 85 percent of the entire mass in the universe, but has not yet been looked at.
But now, scientists at the Hungarian Atomki Nuclear Research Institute, believe that they might have found stronger evidence about the fundamental forces of the five worlds that were previously unknown.
Attila Krasznahorkay and colleagues at Atomki first reported some surprising results in 2015 after studying the light emitted during the decay of beryllium-8 radioactive, unstable isotopes.
Since the discovery of beryllium-8 in the 1930s after its first construction particle accelerator at Cambridge, the existence of these unstable atoms, and their unique way of decaying have been the focus of various studies relating to star nucleosynthesis – how nuclear fusion in stars forms elements.
In 2015, they found, when firing protons at the lithium-7 isotope, which created beryllium-8, the subsequent decay of the particles did not produce the expected light emission, and that certain small "bumps" occurred, which meant for a reason that Unexplained, electrons and positrons, which break when atoms decay, often push each other at 140 degrees.
Various tests in the same lab confirmed the results, and a year later, the same experiments were repeated, with the same results in America.
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It is thought that when an atom decays, the excess energy between its constituent parts briefly creates an unknown new particle, which then immediately decays into a recognizable positron and electron pair.
But we will not all be twisted or flattened into different dimensions. The unknown particle, described as "protophobic X boson", is expected to carry forces acting at microscopic distances not much larger than the nucleus of an atom.
"Boson" is a particle that can carry power.
The particle is named X17, because its mass is calculated to be 17 megaelectronvolts.
But Dr. Krasznahorkay now believes they have measured the same results in stable helium atoms, however, instead of electrons and positrons in helium atoms separated at 140 degrees, the angle is closer to 115 degrees.
"This feature is similar to the anomaly observed in 8Be, and seems to fit the X17 boson decay scenario," the team wrote in arXiv, where research has been published, but has not been reviewed by colleagues.
If the particle's existence is confirmed, that means physicists must finally reassess the interaction of the four fundamental forces of existing particle physics and make room for the fifth.
"We expect more, independent experimental results to come for particle X17 in the coming years," the research team concluded in his paper.