Studies from the Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) at the University of Washington, Seattle, have been published in The Lancet magazine and compare public health in the world between 1950 and 2017.
In almost half the countries of the world, especially in Europe and North and South America, not enough children are born to maintain their population size. At the same time, labor continues to increase in Africa and Asia, with the average woman in Niger giving birth to seven children during her lifetime.
Education is a major factor
Ali Mokdad, professor at IHME, said that one of the most important factors for population growth was education.
If a woman trains herself, she spends more years in school, postpones her pregnancy and, therefore, will have fewer children, she said.
According to IHME, Cyprus is the most infertile country in the world – an average Cypriot woman gives birth to a child in her life. On the other hand, women in Mali, Chad and Afghanistan have an average of more than six children.
Mokdad said that while people in developing countries continue to increase, their economies generally increase, which usually has a declining effect on labor over time.
Countries are expected to get it economically better and chances are fertility will decrease and narrow.
Increased service life
We also live longer than before. The expected global life expectancy for men has increased to 71 years from 48 in 1950. Women are now expected to live up to 76 compared with 53 in 1950.
Heart disease is now the most common cause of death globally, IHME said. Until the end of 1990 there was a neonatal problem, followed by lung disease and diarrhea.
You see fewer deaths from infectious diseases because the country is richer, but also more disabled because people live longer, said Ali Mokdad.
He pointed out that although deaths from infectious diseases such as malaria and tuberculosis have declined significantly since 1990, new non-communicable diseases have occurred.
There are certain behaviors that cause more cases of cardiovascular disease and cancer. Obesity is number one – it increases every year and our behavior contributes to it, he said.