BRATISLAVA, 13 November 2018 (WBN / PR) – Children, adults, pregnant women, travelers, people at high risk of infection, and professionals faced with infectious diseases – all need vaccinations to protect their health and life. If the protection of the population with vaccination fails, there is an epidemic – such as the recent mosquito outbreak in eastern Slovakia in May 2018. This is evidence that the fall of vaccination will cause serious and bad threats to be considered against public health, unnecessary illness and death.
At the turn of the 20th century, the biggest health threat was infectious and parasitic diseases, which most often needed the lives of infants and children. Since the introduction of vaccination, life expectancy has increased by 15 to 25 years. Further extension of life is expected and evidence shows that he has contributed significantly to managing vaccination-related diseases. Current vaccinations can prevent more infectious diseases and on the horizon there is a new vaccine with the potential to prevent other infectious diseases. Mass vaccination programs have been proven to successfully control or even eliminate disease. History shows that reducing vaccine coverage is paving the way for recurrence of disease in protected populations. With a stable and high coverage of the inoculum, the disease subsides and some may be completely extinct. Apart from the success of the undisputed vaccination efforts, 1.5 million people die every year because of diseases that can be prevented by vaccination. According to WHO, vaccines will be the most important tool for permanently reducing high morbidity and mortality associated with the influenza pandemic. Every year, around 3.5 million people are infected with influenza, which results in up to 650,000 deaths. In 1990, infectious diseases accounted for 33% of all deaths, in 2010 it was only 25%.
Apart from being able to prevent death and suffering, vaccines are one of the most cost-effective health investments available. Vaccination has greatly reduced the economic burden on companies with infectious diseases. In addition to protecting lives and reducing disability, vaccination can also reduce pressure on the health system, because it is less frequent doctor visits and hospitalizations; and also reduce downtime and loss costs productivity caused by various diseases. Vaccination can help avoid infectious diseases that are contagious. This prevents them from being transferred between people and develops in the population. Some people cannot be protected by vaccination. For example, children who are too small to be vaccinated, people with weakened immune systems that do not fit all conditions after receiving the vaccine, and those who are too sick to receive vaccines (for example, patients with cancer). Vaccination can also provide "collective protection" for those who cannot be vaccinated. The main component of the vaccine is the antigen, the active ingredient of the vaccine. Stimulate / stimulate the immune system to create immunity. Adjuvants have similar functions. They promote stimulation of the immune system. Together they form the active ingredient of the vaccine. Vaccines can also contain small amounts of other substances that do not stimulate the immune system and therefore are not active. They have secondary interests and include, in particular, antibiotics, preservatives and stabilizers. Antigens are given to organisms in vaccines (vaccines) in various forms, such as live weakened virus particles, kill virus particles, or only parts of viruses, surface bacterial antigens, or antigen found in bacteria.
In Slovakia, compulsory and optional vaccinations are available. Must be vaccinated against ten diseases, optionally for thirteen other diseases, 4 of which are vaccine traps. Vaccination of children against diphtheria, tetanus, blackheads, polio, hepatitis B virus and invasive hemophilia is mandatory under routine mandatory vaccination, as well as vaccination against measles, rheumatism and rubella. As part of regular mandatory vaccination, adults need to be vaccinated against diphtheria and tetanus.
Vaccination schedules are developed by experts based on professional knowledge, years of experience, incidences of disease in the SR and surrounding countries, ECDC recommendations – European Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and WHO – World Health Organization. The most successful prevention program in Slovakia is National Immunization Program. The aim is to protect public health by reducing disease, eliminating and eradicating infectious diseases and ensuring effective and safe immunization for children and adults.
Every decrease in vaccination reduces the effect of collective protection, which means increasing the risk of epidemics and threatening the most vulnerable. It doesn't matter that you don't have to vaccinate a disease that doesn't happen! Collective protection is also important for national security. The free movement of people in the European Union and increased migration affect the safety and health of Slovak citizens. The rate of vaccination of children against measles in Slovakia fell below 95% in four regions: Bratislava, Trenčiansky, Banskobystrický and Košický. One unpleasant consequence was this year's measles epidemic in eastern Slovakia, when it affected 428 people!
If the parent does not refuse compulsory child vaccination without showing a serious doctor or other doctor, he will be fined a total of 331 euros. Vaccination is mandatory, however, does not impose fines for its refusal, but prevention of infectious diseases that can be prevented by vaccination. Vaccinations must be available to all children in Slovakia and protected by general health insurance. Due to strict adherence to vaccination obligations, Slovakia has so far achieved a high vaccination rate and, therefore, population protection against diseases included in mandatory vaccinations.
The important period when vaccination is needed is also pregnancy. Women's immunity and bodily functions experience a number of changes during pregnancy, which facilitate the emergence of infectious diseases. Before pregnancy, a woman must have all mandatory vaccinations to help protect her and her baby. Live vaccines must be given at least one month before planning a pregnancy. The most important thing is to vaccinate sheep if their wives do not survive. Non-living vaccines can also be given just before pregnancy and, if necessary, during pregnancy. Every pregnant woman must be vaccinated against influenza every year from October to December and vaccinate against diphtheria, tetanus and black cough (dTap) at week 28-37 of pregnancy. In pregnancy, flu can cause serious complications for the mother and fetus, including death. In 2009, 6 pregnant women died of an influenza pandemic in SARI in Slovakia, which reached 46.15% of cases! Direct transmission of mother-to-child flu during pregnancy is rare, but is the cause of miscarriages in the first trimester. Influenza viruses cause nerve tubes. Maternal influenza is associated with a fourfold increase in fetal neoplasia – fetal tumors when the absolute number is low. Children of mothers with excess infected influenza lag behind during their growth period. Postpartum vaccination is also important for mother and child. Inoculated mothers reduce the risk of infecting their babies. Pregnant right after birth is safe for the mother even if she is breastfeeding. A woman who has not been vaccinated against tetanus, diphtheria, and black cough during pregnancy must be inoculated immediately after birth if she has not been vaccinated for the past five years.
Groups of people who have or have increased the risk of infection are forcibly vaccinated in Slovakia in certain cases in accordance with the Decree of the Minister of Health of the Slovak Republic 585 of 10.12. 2008 put details on the prevention and control of infectious diseases. These are, for example, people who have come in contact with diseases for tuberculosis, meningitis or hepatitis A. Vaccines are also mandatory for people who live in general households with people who suffer from hepatitis B, and fight rabies who require vaccination of people who have make contact with wild animals. Anti-pneumococcal infection is mandatory for people to be placed in social service homes.
There are also professions where certain vaccinations are mandatory. Vaccines against tuberculosis are, for example, several doctors, laboratory workers or asylum workers. Epidemiologists, soldiers, members of the Prison and Judicial Corps Guards, firefighters and others are vaccinated against hepatitis A. Against hepatitis B, teachers in health schools, social service employees, labor offices, social and family affairs, municipalities, children's facilities for social and legal protection, and social welfare staff are waiting for the hepatitis B vaccine. Vaccination against rabies is mandatory for virological laboratory employees dealing with the rabies virus, employees of remedial institutions who are at direct risk of infection; and sharks. Vaccination against tick-borne inflammation is mandatory for virological laboratory staff who work with itchy inflammatory viruses. Other vaccines are recommended for groups of people and other professionals.
Slovakia has made a commitment to the European Center for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), which is the development of an immunization program and its financial sustainability. Vaccination is part of the European Antibiotic Resistance Program. The state has responsibilities for citizens, especially for the health of children, parents and marginalized groups. It is our duty to protect our health in this way too!