Saturday , May 8 2021

malaria tragedy in ten lessons

Anglogold Ashanti Malaria employee distributes insecticides in Odumase village, Ghana, on May 2, 2018.
Anglogold Ashanti Malaria employee distributes insecticides in Odumase village, Ghana, May 2 2018. CRISTINA ALDEHUELA / AFP

Danger warning! If it is necessary to summarize the 2018 World Health Organization (WHO) report on malaria, this wake-up call will synthesize the analysis released by the UN agency on Monday 19 November. While this disaster has deteriorated on a global scale, in Africa the number of cases and deaths has increased between 2016 and 2017.

For Dr. Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, Director General of WHO, "We are not on track to achieve the two main objectives between the 2016-2030 Technical Malaria Strategy, which is to reduce the incidence of malaria and related deaths by 40% from the 2015 level."

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In 2017, this disease affected 219 million people worldwide, compared to 239 million in 2010. That caused the deaths of more than 435,000 people, mostly in Africa, where ten of the hardest hit countries recorded 3.5 million more cases malaria compared to 2016. In fact, the report is concerned that 200 of the 219 million cases of infection (or 92%) were recorded in Africa. Continents are the first victims and far ahead of Southeast Asia (5%) and the Eastern Mediterranean (2%).

1. Of the five most affected countries, four are from Africa

Globally, five countries share almost half of the contamination, but only one is outside Africa. For example, Nigeria alone accounts for a quarter of the world's population, followed by the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) with 11%, followed by Mozambique (5%) and Uganda (4%). The only "intruder" on this list is India, ex aequo with Uganda.

2. More and more cases in the most vulnerable countries

Ten countries with the most malaria in Africa recorded an increase in the number of cases in 2017 compared to 2016. Among them, Nigeria, Madagascar and the DRC had the highest increase, all estimated to be more than half-million cases. In contrast, India reported 3 million fewer cases in the same period, down 24% from 2016.

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3. Rwanda and Ethiopia, good students

Some good news still appears, especially in two countries. In 2017, 430,000 fewer cases of malaria were reported in Rwanda compared to the previous year, and Ethiopia recorded a decline of more than 240,000 during the same period.

4. Malaria is more fatal in Africa than anywhere else

Africa alone accounted for 93% of global malaria-related deaths in 2017. Although 88% of 172,000 deaths were recorded in this continent compared to 2010, the geographical area remained the hardest hit.

5. Sixteen African countries focus 80% of global deaths

Nearly 80% of global malaria deaths in 2017 are concentrated in 16 African and Indian countries. Seven of these countries are responsible for more than half of deaths (53%). Nigeria is at the top of this sad list, with 19% of those who die. This was followed by DRC (11%), Burkina Faso (6%), Tanzania (5%), Sierra Leone (4%) and Niger (4%). India, with its billions of people, arrived at the end of this list, with also 4% of deaths.

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6. Decreasing mortality rates in Africa compared to 2010

Taking a step back and comparing 2017 data with 2010 data, malaria-related deaths have declined in all regions of the world except America. The biggest decline was observed in Southeast Asia (54%), Africa (40%) and the Eastern Mediterranean (10%). However, this optimism must be weighed by a curve reversal in 2015. At that time, malaria-related deaths began to slow.

7. Mozambique, the land of innovation

To control malaria back on track, a new approach, called "Reducing Malaria Which Is the Most Meaning", will be launched on November 19 in Mozambique, along with the publication of the World Malaria Report. 2018. Initiated by WHO and the Roll Back Malaria partnership, this approach is based on four pillars. It will happen "The galvanizing of national and international political will to reduce malaria-related deaths; increases its impact through the use of strategic information; spread the most effective and appropriate international strategies, policies and guidelines for malaria endemic countries; apply a coordinated national response. "

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8. Money, nerves of war

Twenty-four of the 41 countries where malaria is prevalent rely heavily on external funding to control disease. However, the average level of funding available per person is at risk of decreasing over the period 2015-2017 compared to 2012-2014. The decline is 95% in Congo-Brazzaville and 1% in Uganda.

9. Message from WHO

Given this disturbing data, Dr. Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus delivered a clear message. He believes that "Actions taken over the next two years will determine in relation to achieving (or not) the intermediate goals set for 2025 by WHO's global technical strategy for malaria control". In his eyes, "This action will also determine our collective contribution to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals."

10. Warehouse struggle is global

Addressing malaria requires a comprehensive strategy that includes vector control measures, expanding population diagnosis and rapid treatment, especially at the village level. In 2018, most of the population at risk is not protected, including pregnant women and children in Africa. The road is still long.

Maryline Baumard

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