Saturday , May 8 2021

Schizophrenia, the most disabling mental illness



The schizophrenia This is a complex brain disease that affects several functions that regulate thinking, emotions, behavior, and perception. Even though the prevalence is low (one percent of the world population), it is one of them more deactivation conditions, because it usually appears during adolescence, one of the most productive life stages, confirmed at UNAM Raúl Escamilla.

Head of Sub-specialization at the National Institute of Psychiatry Ramón de la Fuente pointed out that "schizophrenia or psychosis is generally associated with cruel patients, but if they are controlled and treated, they do not have to be; besides, those who suffer from other disorders can be more virulent," Ramón de la Fuente, from the Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, Faculty of Medicine (FM), said in the auditorium.

Those who suffer schizophrenia They lost contact with reality. This disorder is inherent in mental problems and some medical conditions, and the best way to help is to tell residents about this condition to avoid stigma.

Escamilla explains that loss of contact with reality may involve changes in sensoperception, better known as hallucinations or distortions.

The most common are hearing: sounds, sporadic whispers or sounds (most disqualify patients), but there can also be visual, olfactory, touching or somatic hallucinations.

Besides distortion through perception, the affected person has the hallucinations that he or she holds firmly, such as delusion of persecution and greatness. In addition, he suffers from celotypia, bipolar disorder, psychotic or somatic symptoms (when a person thinks he is suffering from a non-existent health problem), "that is the level of hypochondria brought to extremes".

When someone realizes that something is wrong with his mental health, he goes initially with a general practitioner or a psychologist, even looking for an explanation of the spiritual or supernatural type, because "nuanced delusions fit the patient's cultural and personality context," the expert said.

Symptomatology

The schizophrenia it is accompanied by "negative symptoms" such as general disinterest, which can be confusing with depression; losing the ability to enjoy something; lack of initiative; little socialization and isolation.

Other symptoms that have been marked recently are those related to cognition, with higher mental functions, such as attention, concentration, abstraction, planning and memory. This, along with "negative symptoms", complicates treatment; As a result, patients have a poor level of function, said Raul Escamilla.

Usually that schizophrenia This occurs during adolescence, and has to do with changes in the central nervous system maturation process. Regarding risk factors, one of the best known is genetic, although having relatives with psychopathology or schizophrenia is not decisive to develop this condition, he said.

Some causes are still unknown, because many patients who have not been exposed to substances, who do not live in a stressful environment or who have no trigger factors, develop this condition without a clear cause; However, the more risk factors, the probability increases.

Finally, it shows that the earlier the disease starts, the more difficult the prognosis and the more complicated the treatment, which results in the patient's worsening.

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