Wednesday , August 4 2021

Mutants among us: 5 genetic mutations that make you superhuman



Today is 10:48

Science fiction is full of super heroes who have supernatural gifts. But the reality is that some ordinary humans also have special powers and often don't know.

It's about the genetic benefits that a small percentage of the population has.

This advantage arises thanks to genetic mutations, a natural process that changes our DNA.

Just like some hereditary genetic diseases, others have more luck and inherit genes that give them unusual abilities.

Here we give you five examples of some of the benefits you can have thanks to your genes.

1. Perfect underwater vision

Most of us see everything blurry if we open our eyes when we sink into the water.

This is due to a problem in physics: water density is similar to eye fluids and light refraction cannot enter the eye properly.

This is why humans usually only see well when we come into contact with air.

But there is one exception: the Moken people, who inhabit the Andaman Sea, a sector in the Indian Ocean between Burma and Thailand.

These tribes are known as "sea gypsies" because they spend most of their lives living in huts on water or on boats, and only go ashore for inventory.

If you have a moken gene, you can see crystals under water.

It is believed that this genetic mutation arose because Moken spent a lot of time underwater, collecting food from the sea floor and fishing spears on the seabed.

A scientific study published in 2003 in the journal Current Biology revealed that the genetic mutations of moken caused their eyes to deform underwater.

This allows light to properly bias when entering your eyes and allows you to see clearly, even submerged more than 20 meters under water.

2. Tolerance to cold

Other genetic advantages observed in some indigenous people are related to the ability to withstand low temperatures.

The human body has a normal temperature range that ranges between 36.5 and 37.5 ℃. That is why most humans are better prepared to face hot climates than cold climates.

Normal body cannot stand extreme cold. But there are some populations that have that capacity, thanks to their special genes.

Tribes such as Inuits, which inhabit the North Pole, or Nenet, who live in northern Russia, have adapted to freezing temperatures.

Their bodies react differently to cold because they are biologically different from others.

For example, they don't tremble with cold, they have fewer sweat glands, their skin is much warmer than usual and their metabolism has a much higher level.

These skills are purely genetic: if you move to the middle of the North Pole and live there for decades, you will not get extraordinary abilities from those who carry this mutation.

3. Less hours of sleep

One skill that you can have, without belonging to any tribe, is to work well with fewer hours of sleep than usual.

Some studies show that most people need to sleep between 7 and 9 hours to feel rested.

Sleep deprivation can cause concentration problems and health, both physical and mental.

However, a study conducted with twins in 2014 led the American Academy of Sleep Medicine to find that there is a genetic mutation that allows some people to need fewer hours of sleep.

People with mutated DEC2 genes have the ability to have more intense REM sleep, which makes their rest more effective.

With 6 hours of sleep or less you feel really rested and ready to face the day.

However, experts clarify that these mutations affect a small percentage of people – less than 1% of those who report little sleep.

That is why, if you sleep a little and you think you will be fine because maybe you have a genetic mutation, chances are that is not so and you need more rest.

4. Toughened bones

This advantage seems to come from superhero comics. Characters can be called "men or women with strong bones".

Most of our skeletons lose bone density and mass as we get older. It is known as osteoporosis and can cause fractures and deformation.

But there are some people who have mutations in a gene called SOST, which controls the protein sclerostin, which regulates and controls bone growth.

A study conducted by research and development scientists at Chiroscience in Bothell, Washington, found that those who had this mutation did not lose bone mass as they grew older.

Their bones continue to accumulate density and mass with the passage of time, giving them a framework for a much younger person.

This mutation was found in some Afrikaans, because the Dutch population living in South Africa was known.

Now scientists are looking for ways to replicate these mutations to allow other people to reverse the aging of their skeletons.

5. Adaptation to height

The Andean community calls it "soroche" and anyone who has suffered will not forget it easily. Discomfort felt at height by lack of oxygen.

This altitude or mountain disease usually causes dizziness, low pressure, headaches and respiratory problems.

There are many recommended tricks to avoid it: move slowly, eat a little, don't try hard, chew coca. Some resorts use drugs. But the reality is that even many fall "apunados".

However, that is not a problem that affects populations living in the mountains.

Studies conducted in Quechua in the Andes and Tibetans in the Himalayas show that they have genetic advantages that allow them to adapt to their environment.

Torsos they are bigger and have a greater lung capacity, which allows them to enter more oxygen with every inspiration.

And while most people produce more red blood cells when their bodies receive less oxygen, they produce less.

These characteristics are maintained even when these populations move to lower places, because they are part of their genes.

Maybe this mutation does not officially make them "superheroes" but more than a tourist who struggles to climb the mountain at the pace of an ant and is followed by a place that walks – sometimes carrying several bags – of course he believes they have super powers.



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