From the END OF THE WORLD to the CHAPTER DESIGNER: BIGGEST science story in 2018
However, that is not all good news – 2018 witnessed the disappearance of one of the world's greatest scientists with the death of Stephen Hawking. Experts also predict a bleak future for our planet thanks to climate change, after one year of severe weather. Here, Express.co.uk collects major science stories that have rocked the world this year.
Water on Mars
Scientists made a major breakthrough in the search for life on Mars after they discovered what appeared to be a lake of water that existed at the end of July.
The lake was found on the ice cap of the south pole of Mars and covered with a sheet of ice, whose thickness has not been determined.
The waters are around 20 kilometers and will be the first evidence of permanent water on the Red Planet.
NASA's Curiosity Rover space agency has discovered that liquid water flows intermittently on Mars and also detects that water has been there in the past.
NASA discovered an underground lake on Mars
But this discovery can prove that water is likely to be constant throughout 4.6 billion years of Martian history – making life more likely.
Professor Roberto Orosei, from the University of Bologna, wrote in the journal Science: "Very bright underwater reflections are proven in well-defined 20-kilometer zones surrounded by areas that are far less reflective of light.
"Quantitative analysis of radar signals shows that this bright feature has a relatively high dielectric permittivity (electric polarization) that matches water-containing material.
"We interpret this feature as a stable body of liquid water on Mars."
NASA launches Parker Solar Probe
NASA flies close to the sun
NASA launched one of its most ambitious missions on August 11 when Parker Solar Probe was detonated from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida.
The investigation, named for astrophysicist Eugene Parker who developed the theory of supersonic solar winds, is heading towards the Sun at 430,000 mph or 125 miles per second.
Once there, the probe will be placed in orbit only four million miles from the sun where the temperature exceeds 1,400 degrees Celsius.
This mission is important because NASA spent 15 years trying and tiring mistakes to develop lightweight and heat-resistant materials.
The end result sees the front and rear heat protectors made of carbon-carbon – materials designed for hot temperatures.
Two carbon-carbon sheets are only one tenth of an inch, which means they are soft enough.
This mission will collect data about the sun's outer atmosphere known as the corona.
The temperature in the corona reaches 500,000 degrees Celsius and, for unknown reasons, far exceeds the core heat of the sun.
This will also help scientists understand the history of the sun and solar wind.
NASA said in a statement: "Parker Solar Probe, which is protected by the first type of heat shield and other innovative technologies, will provide unprecedented information about our Sun, where changing conditions can spread to the solar system to affect the Earth and other worlds . "
A Chinese scientist claims that he helped make the world's first genetically modified baby
The first genetically engineered baby in the world
This year saw global anger when a Chinese scientist claimed that he helped create the world's first genetically modified human: a twin girl whose DNA he said he had changed.
A team at the University of South Science and Technology, in Shenzhen, plans to eliminate a gene called CCR5 to make its offspring immune to HIV, smallpox and cholera.
The Chinese scientist behind this effort, He Jiankui from Shenzhen, used a gene editing tool, CRISPR, to make "genetically modified" human babies.
The results were welcomed by public reaction, which considered the experiment to be immoral, with many claiming it could lead to so-called "designer babies".
However, this study was quickly thrown into question, with experts claiming Dr. Jiankui did not achieve astonishing achievements, because the findings were not published in medical or scientific journals where they would be reviewed by other experts, making some people believe that hiding something.
This is a story that continues to grow and deserves close attention when we go to 2019.
Climate change has become a hot topic this year
The future looks bleak
The breaking temperature record is set again in 2019, and scientists are beginning to warn that the future does not look good for humanity unless we get our actions together.
The ice sheet continues to melt at high speed, which is very damaging to the fragile ecosystem of the planet and not enough to save us now, scientists warn.
Steps have been taken, such as the Paris Climate Agreement, to save the planet but experts believe that might not be enough if humans want to continue to develop.
By 2050, the global population is estimated at nearly 10 billion people, and many scientists believe that it will be a tipping point for humanity.
British icon and famous naturalist Sir David Attenborough believes the collapse of civilization is on the horizon and said in early December that action needed to be taken now.
In his fiery speech, Sir David said: "Today we are facing a man-made disaster on a global scale, our biggest threat in thousands of years – climate change.
"If we don't take action, the collapse of our civilization and the extinction of most of the natural world are on the horizon."
Stephen Hawking died in March, at the age of 76 years
Stephen Hawking's Death
The last story on our list is for people who make the whole world interested in science.
Professor Stephen Hawking died at the age of 76 in the early hours of March 13, after a 55-year battle with motor neuron disease.
Professor Hawking suffers from a slow, slow-developing initial form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as motor neuron disease or Lou Gehrig's disease.
He was diagnosed with motor neuron disease in 1963 at the age of 21 years.
Doctors hope he will live no more than two years, but he has a form of the disease that develops more slowly than usual.
Tribute floods pioneer scientists, but maybe the children themselves are the best. In a statement, the children of Professor Hawking, Lucy, Robert and Tim Hawking said: "We are very sad because our beloved father died today.
"He is a great scientist and extraordinary man whose work and inheritance will live for years.
"His courage and perseverance with his brilliance and humor inspire people throughout the world.
"He once said, & # 39; It will not be far from the universe if it is not home to the person you love. & # 39; We will miss him forever."